> FHE[ 1bjbj** 1BHbHb)|||||4 = ? ? ? ? ? ? $"n%^c |c ||x v||= = Vu@P)() 0 %%%|@c c %BB: douglas@damien-hs.edu Mr. Douglas
A.P. Statistics
Classroom Conduct: You are expected to conduct yourself in a respectful and responsible manner during class. There are too many specifics to list, but at this point you should know what constitutes proper classroom behavior. Follow all school rules.
Attendance: If you know in advance you will be missing class time, you need to see me and make proper arrangements. School policy regarding an absence states that you have the same number of days to make up an assignment as you were gone. The homework will be on schoolmaster and the course web page. If you are not in class, it is YOUR responsibility to find out what assignment you missed.
Technology: I will be teaching you all the techniques on a TI-89 graphing calculator. You will need an application titled Stats/List Editor. If you do not have it, I will make sure that someone send you the application. The graphing calculator offers a variety of tools for entering storing, displaying, simulating, comparing sets of data, and generally making your life easier. Technology is an integral part of this class. However, technology will not think for you. You must be able to effectively use technology to analyze and interpret data.
Homework: All must be turned in by the end of the grading period to receive credit.
Edlio: All notes will be saved and uploaded to an edlio class. You are required to enroll in the class. These notes will be available each day. If you are absent you should be able to go on line and gets the notes from the day you missed.
Extra Help: This is a difficult course, so you can expect to struggle at times. When you encounter trouble, try to work though it yourself. Use the book and notes to assist you. If you are still having a difficult time, schedule a meeting with me so we can solve your issues.
Grading: Your grade in this course will be determined by your performance on tests, quizzes, homework, and projects.
TESTS- Tests will be given at the end of each chapter. Tests will be in the AP format, multiple choice and free response.
HOMEWORK- Every homework assignment will be collected and inspected. Homework will account for roughly 100 points each quarter. Each assignment is worth 8 points if turned in on time and complete. A late assignment will be given 4 points. A 0 will be given at the end of the quarter for any assignment nor turned in.
PROJECTS- There will be a project assigned during the school year. The project will be completed as we progress throughout the year with the bulk of the work being done after all material is completed. Details will be given as we get closer to the assignment date.
FINALS- A mid semester and a semester final will be given. They will be half of an AP test: 20 multiple-choice questions and 3 free response.
Grades: The math department scale will be followed. Your grade is obtained by dividing your points received by the total points.
90-100 A
80-89 B
65-79 C
55-64 D
<54 F
EXPECTATIONS
Honesty: I expect you to be honest when dealing with me. If I ask you a question, then you should provide a completely honest response. In some cases, this can be uncomfortable for you. For example, if you arrive late to class, I am going to ask you why you are late. There is a temptation to give a polite, selectively accurate explanation. This is the wrong thing to do. Everyone makes mistakes. Sometimes those mistakes lead to consequences, but I assure you I will do my best to treat you fairly if you are honest.
Homework: The goal of homework is for YOU to master the course content. Since this is an AP course and you will be tested for proficiency at the end of the year, it only makes sense that you out in a concerted effort. As a result, I expect you to attempt the assignment on your own following these guidelines:
Before you start working, get out your notes and book. Consult the class notes when necessary to ensure you are following the proper guidelines in writing the solution.
Check odd numbered problems in the back of the book after you have completed it.
If you miss a problem or get stuck, refer to your class notes and then your textbook. Look for a similar type of problem that you can use as a guide.
Do not leave a question blank. At the very least, write an explanation of what you do understand about the problem and why you are stuck.
All homework should be done in pencil. When we discuss the homework in class, all corrections should be made in pen. That way we both can see what you need to work on and what you have already mastered.
You may only consult with another student AFTER you have attempted the work on your own. If you do receive assistance, it should be clearly written on each students paper. You will learn a lot more by working alone, even if you struggle.
Quizzes, Tests, and Finals: You may not receive aid from any other human source, or from any written source. Storage of text, data, and equations in your calculator will be considered cheating. Instances of cheating will be handled in accordance with the student handbook.
Brief Course Description: An introduction to the modern methods of analyzing numerical data, as dictated by the Advanced Placement syllabus. Topics include frequency distribution, measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion, probability theory, binomical and normal distribution, hypothesis testing and liner regression.
Course Outcomes:
I. Exploring Data
A. The interpretation of graphical displays of distributions of data including dotplots, stemplots, histograms, and frequency plots.
1. Center and spread.
2. Clusters and gaps.
3. Outliers and other unusual features.
4. Shape
B. The summarization of distributions including quantifying the graphical distributions.
1. Measuring the two measures of center: median and mean.
2. Measuring spread: range, interquartile range, and standard deviation.
3. Measuring position: quartiles, percentiles, standardized scores (z-scores).
4. Using and interpreting boxplots
5. The effect of changing units on the above summary measures.
C. Comparing distributions of data.
1. Comparing center and spread within groups and between groups.
2. Comparing clusters and gaps.
3. Comparing outliers and other unusual features.
4. Comparing shapes.
D. Exploring data.
1. Analyzing patterns in scatterplots.
2. Correlation and linearity.
3. Least square regression.
4. Residual plots, outliers, and influential points.
5. Transformations to achieve linearity: non algebraic transformations.
E. Exploring categorical data: frequency tables.
1. Marginal and joint frequencies of two way tables.
2. Conditional relative frequencies and association.
II. Planning a Study
A. Overview of methods of data collection.
1. Census.
2. Sample survey.
3. Experiment.
4. Observational study.
B. Planning and conducting surveys.
1. Characteristics of a well designed and conducted survey.
2. Populations, samples, and random selection.
3. Sources of bias in surveys.
4. Simple random sampling.
5. Stratified random sampling.
C. Planning and conducting experiments.
1. Characteristics of a well designed and conducted experiment.
2. Treatments, control groups, experimental units, random assignments and replication.
3. Sources of bias and confounding including the placebo effect and blinding.
4. Completely randomized sample design.
5. Randomized block design including matched pairs design.
D. Generalizing results of studies, surveys and experiments.
III. Anticipating patterns using probability models, theory and simulation.
A. Probability as relative frequency.
1. Law of large numbers.
2. Addition rule, multiplication rule, conditional probability and independence.
3. Discrete random variables and their distributions.
4. Simulation of probability distributions, including binomial and geometric.
5. Mean and standard deviation of a random variable.
B. Combining independent random variables.
1. Notion of independence versus dependence.
2. Mean and standard deviation for sums and differences of random variables.
C. The normal distribution.
1. Properties of the normal distribution.
2. Using tables of the normal distribution.
3. The normal distribution as a model for measurements.
D. Sampling distributions.
1. Sampling distributions of a sample proportion.
2. Sampling distribution of a sample mean.
3. Central Limit Theorem.
4. Sampling distribution of a difference between two sample proportions.
5. Sampling distribution of a difference between two sample means.
6. Simulation of sampling distributions.
IV. Statisitcal Inference.
A. Confidence Intervals.
1. The meaning of a confidence interval.
2. Large sample confidence interval for a proportion.
3. Large sample confidence interval for a mean.
4. Large sample confidence interval for a difference of two proportions.
5. Large sample confidence interval for a difference of two means.
B. Tests of significance.
1. Logic of significance testing, Ho and Ha, p-values, Type I and II errors and power.
2. Large sample test for a proportion.
3. Large sample test for a mean.
4. Large sample test for a difference between two proportions.
5. Large sample test for a difference between two means.
6. Chi square test for goodness of fit and independence.
C. Special case of normally distributed data.
1. t-distribution.
2. Single sample t procedures.
3. Two sample t procedures.
4. Inference for the slope of least-square regression line.
Objectives: By the end of the year students should be able to:
I. Explore data through the analysis of graphical and numerical techniques to discover patterns and deviations from pattern.
II. Collect data through a well-developed plan. In addition, numerous methods of data collection will be analyzed for strengths and weaknesses.
III. Use probability as a tool for anticipating the distribution of data under different models.
IV. Understand that statistical inference needs to be properly applied to draw conclusions from data. This includes selecting a proper model, including a statement in probability language, and stating confidence about the conclusion.
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